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Relationship Between English Words and Sentence Elements
2020-01-16 13:17   审核人:

                                     英语词类和句子成分的关系

Source:英语语法手册

在句子里,一定的句子成分由一定的词类来担任。现将哪些句子成分通常由哪些词类来担任列述如下:

主语:名词和代词

Beijing is the capital of our country.北京是我国的首都。(名词Beijing作主语)

She is fond of sports.她爱好运动。(代词She作主语)

谓语动词:动词

My brother rides. his bicycle to work.我哥哥骑自行车上班。(动词rides作谓语动词)

表语:名词、代词和形容词

His father is a doctor.他父亲是个医生。(名词doctor作表语)

The lesson is easy and Short.这课书又容易又短。(形容词easy和short作表语)

That classroom is ours,那个教室是我们的。(代词ours作表语)

宾语:名词和代词

I love music.我热爱音乐。(名词music作宾语)

The medicine is good for her.这药对她有效。(代词her作宾语)

定语:形容词

Li Hong is an excellent teacher.李红是一位好老师。(形容词excellent作定语)

状语:副词

Our monitor does well in English.我们班长英语学得好。(副词well作状语)

英语语法手册]短语、从句和句子

短语(phrase)具有一定意义但不构成从句或句子的一组词,叫做短语。短语在句子里可以单独作为一个句子成分。短语的种类很多,但本书只用下列几个短语名称:

a)不定式短语(infinitive phrase)如He 1ikes to read newspapers after lunch(他喜欢在午饭后读报)中的to read newspapers after lunch。

b)动名词短语(gerundial phrase)如:

Staying indoors all day is unhealthy(整天呆在家里不利于健康)中的staymg indoors all day。

c)分词短语(participial phrase)如:

I saw many people walking along the lake(我看见许多人在湖边散步)中的walking along the lake。

d)介词短语(prepositional phrase)如:

He came by bus(他乘公共汽车来)中的by bus。

从句(clause)内含主语部分和谓语部分,表达一定的概念,但不成为一个独立句子的一组词,叫做从句。从句在句子里可以作为一个句子成分,一般由连词、关

系代词或关系副词所引导。

从句在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语等句子成分;

a)主语从句(subject clause)如What I want to say is this(我要说的是这么一点)中的what I want to say。

b)表语从句(predicative clause)如This is what I want to say(这是我要说的)中的what I want to say。

c)宾语从句(object clause)如I have said what I want to say(我说完了我要说的话)中的what I want to say。

d)定语从句(attributive clause)如This is the thing I want to say(这就是我要说的)中的I want to say。

e)状语从句(adverbial clause)如If you want to say something,say it clearly(假如你要说什么,就应说清楚)中的if you want to say something。

句子(sentence)内含主语部分和谓语部分,有比较完整的意义的一组词,叫做句子。

从句子结构本身来看,句子可分为:

a)简单句(simple sentence)只有一个主语部分和一个谓语部分,如:

The people's Republic of China was founded in 1949.中华人民共和国于一九四九年成立。

b)并列句(compound sentence)包括两个或两个以上的简单句,中间常由连词连接,如:

Tom's father worked from morning till night but he got very little money.汤姆的父亲从早干到晚,但挣得的钱很少。

c)复合句(complex sentence)内含一个或一个以上的从句,如:

It's a long time since I saw you last.好久没有看见你了。

从说话人说话的目的来看,句子可分为:

a)陈述句(declarative sentence)用来叙述一件事,如:

I saw him yesterday.昨天我看见他了。

b)疑问句(interrogative sentence)用来提出疑问,如:

Did you see him yesterday?你昨天见到他了吗?

c)祈使句(imperative sentence)表示请求、命令等,如:

Please come in.请进来。

d)感叹句(exclamatory sentence)表示喜怒等各种情感,如:

What a beautiful voice she has!她嗓子多好啊!

 

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